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《中国关键词:抗击新冠肺炎疫情篇》(第三批)

  发布时间:2020-03-25
 
《中国关键词:抗击新冠肺炎疫情篇》
Key Words to Understand China: The Fight Against COVID-19
 
一、 中央决策
Decisions by the Central Leadership

1. 让党旗在防控疫情斗争第一线高高飘扬
 
        在中国,一个党员就是一面旗帜,一个支部就是一座堡垒。2020年1月27日,习近平作出重要指示,让党旗在防控疫情斗争第一线高高飘扬。这一严明号令、有力动员,鼓舞和激励着广大党员干部冲锋在防控疫情斗争第一线,坚决遏制疫情蔓延势头,坚决维护社会大局稳定、守护人民幸福安康。
 
        让党旗在防控疫情斗争第一线高高飘扬,各级党委必须统一领导、统一指挥、统一行动。要增强“四个意识”、坚定“四个自信”、做到“两个维护”,把思想和行动统一到习近平重要讲话、重要指示和中央政治局常委会会议精神上来,统一到党中央决策部署上来。要充分发挥好党支部战斗堡垒作用、党员先锋模范作用,全面贯彻坚定信心、同舟共济、科学防治、精准施策的总要求。在防控疫情的严峻斗争中,各级党组织和广大党员干部要把初心写在行动上,把使命落在岗位上,让每个党支部都成为坚强的战斗堡垒,每名党员都成为一面鲜红的旗帜。
 
Let the Party Flag Fly High on the Front Line of the Anti-Epidemic War.
 
        In China, a Party member is like a flag and a Party branch is like a fortress. On January 27, Xi Jinping instructed letting the Party flag fly high on the front line of the war against the epidemic. Obeying this mobilization order, numerous Party members and officials are inspired to take firm actions on the front line, and resolutely safeguard overall social stability and the well-being of the people.

        To let the Party flag fly high on the front line of the war, Party committees at all levels must follow the unified leadership and command and take unified action. They need to enhance their consciousness of maintaining political integrity, thinking in big-picture terms, following the leadership core, and keeping in alignment with the central Party leadership, have confidence in the socialist path, theory, system and culture, and resolutely uphold General Secretary Xi Jinping’s core position on the CPC Central Committee and in the whole Party and uphold the authority of the CPC Central Committee and its centralized and unified leadership. They must unify their thinking and action with the guidelines of Xi Jinping’s speeches and directives and the meetings of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, and with the decisions and deployments of the CPC Central Committee. 

        It is necessary to give full play to the role of Party branches and the exemplary vanguard role of Party members, and fully implement the central leadership’s general requirement of “being united to take science-based and targeted measures and fight the epidemic with confidence.” 
In this grave struggle against the epidemic, Party organizations at all levels and the vast number of Party members and officials must turn their mission of serving the people into firm actions and work diligently on their posts. Only in this way, every Party branch can become a strong fighting fortress and every Party member can become a high-flying Party flag.
 
2. 党政领导干部要坚守岗位、靠前指挥、强化担当
 
        2020年1月25日,习近平在中共中央政治局常委会专题会议上指出,各级党政领导干部,特别是主要领导干部要坚守岗位、靠前指挥,在防控疫情斗争中经受考验,深入防控疫情第一线,及时发声指导,及时掌握疫情,及时采取行动,做到守土有责、守土尽责。2月10日,习近平在北京市调研指导新冠肺炎疫情防控工作时再次强调,各级党政领导干部要靠前指挥、强化担当。
 
        这是动员令,也是宣言书,更是军令状。这场严峻复杂的抗疫战斗,对领导干部而言既是政治素质和全局观念的重大考验,又是宗旨意识和为民情怀的重大考验。作为“关键少数”,各级领导干部应主动担当作为,发挥关键作用,筑起基层防控堡垒。打赢疫情防控的人民战争、总体战、阻击战,绝不容许推诿扯皮,对于作风漂浮、失职渎职者必须追究责任、依法惩处。实践证明,能不能打赢这场仗,能不能做好防控工作,领导干部的治理能力是关键因素,必须具备相应的危机处理能力、资源调度能力、社会管理能力和舆论引导能力。
 
Leading Officials Must Stand Fast at Post, Command at the Forefront, and Shoulder Their Responsibilities.

        Addressing the meeting of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee on January 25, 2020, Xi Jinping demanded Party and government officials at all levels, especially leading ones, stand fast at their posts and command at the forefront. They must stand the test in the fight against the epidemic, go deep into the front line, give guidance in time, closely monitor the situation and promptly take actions. They must perform their due responsibilities and try their best.
 
        He reiterated the responsibilities of leading Party and government officials at all levels during an inspection of the epidemic prevention work in Beijing on February 10.
 
        This is a mobilization and an order. For leading officials, the severe and complicated battle is a major test of their political quality, their sense of mission and their care of the people. They must take the initiative and play a key role in building up the stronghold at the grassroots level. 
 
        To win the nation’s war on the epidemic, prevarication and buck-passing must not be allowed, and those with superficial conduct or dereliction of duty shall be called to account and punished according to the law. Practices have proved that the governance capacity of leading officials is a critical factor to win this war and to effective epidemic control. The officials must have strong capabilities in crisis management, resource distribution, social administration and public relations.
 
3. 做好疫情防控工作,直接关系人民生命安全和身体健康,直接关系经济社会大局稳定,也事关我国对外开放
2020年2月3日,习近平总书记主持召开专题会议并强调,做好疫情防控工作,直接关系人民生命安全和身体健康,直接关系经济社会大局稳定,也事关我国对外开放。
 
        疫情防控工作直接关系人民生命财产安全和身体健康。这就要求各级政府全力以赴救治患者,保障医疗防护物资供应,努力提高收治率和治愈率、降低感染率和病死率,这也是防控工作的突出任务。必须统筹做好人员调配,尽量把精兵强将集中起来,把重症病人集中起来,统一进行救治,及时推广各医院救治重症病人的有效做法。
疫情防控工作直接关系经济社会大局稳定。这就要求各级党委和政府继续为实现今年经济社会发展目标任务而努力,切实维护正常的经济社会秩序。必须在加强疫情防控的同时,通过落实“菜篮子”市长负责制,积极组织蔬菜等副食品生产,加强物资调配和市场供应等措施,努力保持生产生活平稳有序,确保蔬菜、肉蛋奶、粮食等居民生活必需品供应。

        疫情防控工作事关我国对外开放。这就要求中国优先保障在全球供应链中有重要影响的龙头企业和关键环节恢复生产供应,维护全球供应链稳定。只有站在全球供应链核心节点上的中国行业企业及时运转、中国机器有序开动,全球供应链才能保持稳定。

Epidemic Control: Directly Affecting People’s Lives and Health, Overall Economic and Social Stability, and China’s Opening Up
 
        At the meeting on February 3, Xi Jinping pointed out that epidemic prevention and control directly affects people’s lives and health, the overall economic and social stability, and China’s opening up to the outside world.
As it directly affects people’s lives, property and health, governments at all levels must spare no pains to save patients, and ensure the supply of medical protective equipment, so as to raise the hospital admission rate and the recovery rate, and lower the infection rate and the case fatality rate. All these are very important to epidemic prevention and control. It is necessary to coordinate personnel deployment, concentrate the best medical workers, put together all severe cases for treatment, and rapidly promote the effective practices of various hospitals in curing severe patients.
 
        As it directly affects the overall economic and social stability, Party committees and governments at all levels must make efforts to achieve the goals and tasks of this year’s economic and social development, and earnestly maintain normal economic and social order. While combating the epidemic, city mayors need to ensure the “vegetable basket” (non-grain food supply) and actively organize production of vegetables and other non-staple foods, efficiently allocate materials and market supply, strive to maintain stability and order in production and life, and guarantee the supply of vegetables, meat, eggs, milk, grain and other daily necessities for residents.
As it directly affects China’s opening up to the outside world, the country need to give priority to the resumption of production and supply by leading enterprises and key links in the global supply chain, in order to maintain stability of the chain. Only when China sets in motion in an orderly manner and Chinese enterprises keep operating smoothly, can the global supply chain remain stable.
 
4. 同时间赛跑,与病魔较量
 
        2020年2月3日,习近平主持召开专题会议并强调,同时间赛跑、与病魔较量,坚决遏制疫情蔓延势头,坚决打赢疫情防控阻击战。这一要求,彰显了人民利益高于一切的执政理念,传递出分秒必争战胜病魔的坚定信心。
时间就是生命,抗击疫情,就是一场与时间的赛跑。在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,党员干部冲锋在前,医护人员日夜奔忙,火神山医院、雷神山医院建设者忘我鏖战,亿万中国人民行动起来,汇聚起一股强大的战斗力量。在防控疫情这场没有硝烟的战争中,每一次微小的胜利,都是争分夺秒奋勇拼搏的结果。
疫情是魔鬼,战胜疫情,就是赢得与魔鬼的较量。要拿出强劲的勇气和实力,不能让魔鬼藏匿。要用科研攻关与它较量,在新冠病毒疫苗的研发方面不断取得新进展;用团结奋战与它较量,打响疫情防控的人民战争;用过硬作风与它较量,各级领导干部深入防控一线,雷厉风行解决突出问题,及时为群众排忧解难,有力推动各项防控工作贯彻落实。
 
Racing Against the Clock to Fight the Disease
 
        While presiding over a meeting on February 3, Xi Jinping called for racing against the clock to fight the disease. He demanded all-out efforts to resolutely curb the spread of the epidemic and win the battle against it. This reflects the ruling idea that takes the interests of the people above all else.
 
         Time is crucial for saving lives, and it is vital to race against time to fight the epidemic. Under the strong leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Xi Jinping at its core, Party members and officials charged forward, medical personnel worked non-stop shifts, constructors were heavily occupied day and night to build the Huoshenshan and Leishenshan hospitals, and hundreds of millions of Chinese people took actions and formed a powerful fighting force. There is no smoke of gunpowder in this war against the epidemic, but every small victory is the result of fighting courageously against the clock.
 
        Facing such a devil, we must be very brave and use our full strength against it, and not let it hide anywhere. We need to tackle key problems through scientific research, and develop effective vaccines as early as possible. We need to wage a people’s war and fight with solidarity. Leading officials must go deep into the front line, solve prominent problems, and alleviate people’s sufferings, in an effort to promote epidemic prevention and control.
 
二、政策部署
Anti-Epidemic Guidelines and Arrangements
 
1. 优先满足一线医护人员和救治病人需要
 
        2020年2月3日,习近平主持召开中共中央政治局常委会会议,强调要重点抓好防治力量的区域统筹,坚决把救治资源和防护资源集中到抗击疫情第一线,优先满足一线医护人员和救治病人需要。2月14日,习近平在中共中央全面深化改革委员会第十二次会议讲话中强调,要平战结合、补齐短板,健全优化重大疫情救治体系,建立健全分级、分层、分流的传染病等重大疫情救治机制,支持一线临床技术创新,及时推广有效救治方案。2月23日,习近平在统筹推进新冠肺炎疫情防控和经济社会发展工作部署会议讲话中强调,要发挥好高水平医疗团队作用,把好钢用在刀刃上,在重症救治、病例指导、方案优化等方面更好发挥他们的作用。
 
        医务人员是战胜疫情的中坚力量。从医院救治一线到科研攻关前沿,从完善诊疗方案、精心救治患者,到治愈率不断提高、病亡率持续下降,各地不断传来患者治愈出院的好消息。广大医务人员为打赢疫情防控阻击战筑起了生命防线、提供了专业支撑。
 
        各级党委和政府积极采取务实、贴心的举措,帮助广大医务人员解决实际困难和问题,免除后顾之忧。措施体现在三个方面:把生活保障做到位,改善工作和休息条件,合理安排医务人员轮休,落实有关待遇,提供良好后勤服务;把安全保障做到位,医疗防护物资优先满足一线医护人员和救治病人需要,加大对暴力伤医违法行为打击力度;把人文关怀做到位,加强心理危机干预和心理疏导,保护好医务人员身心健康。
 
Ensuring Priority Access of Frontline Medical Workers and Patients
 
         On February 3, at the meeting of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, Xi Jinping underscored coordination among epidemic prevention and control forces among different regions, and demanded concentrating treatment and protective resources on the front line and giving priority to the needs of frontline medical workers and patients. 
 
         On February 14, at the meeting of the Commission for Comprehensive Reform under the CPC Central Committee, Xi emphasized the need to get prepared for both peacetime and epidemic time, improve the areas of weakness, improve the medical treatment system for major epidemics, establish a sound graded, multilevel treatment mechanism for infectious diseases and other major epidemic situations, support innovations of frontline clinical technology, and promptly promote effective treatment plans. 
 
        On February 23, speaking to the meeting held to coordinate epidemic prevention and control and economic and social development, he called for giving full play to the high-level medical teams where they are most needed: curing severe cases, guiding medical practices, and optimizing treatment plans.
 
        Medical workers are the backbone force in defeating the epidemic. From saving lives in frontline hospitals to conducting research to tackle key problems, from updating the guidelines on diagnosis and treatment, treating the patients with all possible approaches, to continuously raising the recovery rate and lowering the case fatality rate, heartening reports are pouring in from all over the country as more and more patients are cured and discharged from the hospital. A large number of medical workers have built a line of defense and provided professional support for winning the war.
 
        Party committees and governments at all levels have actively taken pragmatic and intimate measures to help medical workers overcome difficulties, solve problems, and eliminate worries: (1) offering them more support in daily life by improving their working and resting conditions, properly arranging off-days in rotation, implementing relevant preferential policies and providing good logistics services; (2) offering them more security assurance by first providing sufficient medical protective materials to frontline medical workers and patients, and punishing illegal acts of hospital violence; and (3) offering them more humanistic care and psychological intervention and counseling, and protecting both their physical and mental health.
 
2. 防控力量向社区下沉
 
        2020年2月10日,习近平在北京调研指导新冠肺炎疫情防控工作时强调,社区是疫情联防联控的第一线,也是外防输入、内防扩散最有效的防线,把社区这道防线守住,就能有效切断疫情扩散蔓延的渠道,全国都要充分发挥社区在疫情防控中的阻击作用,把防控力量向社区下沉,加强社区各项防控措施的落实,使所有社区成为疫情防控的坚强堡垒。
 
         社区是城市管理的神经末梢,是最基本的管理单元,也是力量相对薄弱的地方。疫情发生以来,中国各地充分发挥社区在疫情防控中的阻击作用,把防控力量沉到基层、落到实处。从入户排查到重点人群监控,从疫情发现报告到病患及时收治,广大社区构筑起疫情防控的人民防线;广大党员干部冲上一线,拿出战时状态的精气神和行动力,靠前指挥、冲在一线,在紧张的战斗中提高能力、锤炼作风;社区工作人员用脚步丈量民情民意,及时掌握在材料报表和办公室里察觉不到的情况,通过发现问题、解决问题推动防控工作做实做细,与广大群众一起为夺取疫情防控最终胜利而不懈努力。
 
Empowering Communities to Prevent and Control the Spread of the Coronavirus
 
        When inspecting Beijing’s COVID-19 prevention on February 10, Xi Jinping stressed that the community is the front line of joint prevention and control, and the most effective line of defense to stop the coronavirus from entering and spreading within a region. We can effectively cut off the route of spread if we hold firm the line of defense at the communities. The communities need play their due role, and they should also be empowered to apply various prevention and control measures, so that every community will become a strong bastion defending against the epidemic.
 
        Communities are the nerve endings of urban management. They are also where the administration is relatively weak. Since the outbreak of the epidemic, communities across China have been fully mobilized to conduct door-to-door screening, monitoring of target groups, and detection of suspected cases for timely treatment. A large number of Party members and officials have rushed to the front line and take on resolute actions on a war footing. And this has helped improve their abilities and conduct. Many community workers have visited the families in need to learn about the true situation, which they will never find in report forms and their offices, and in getting the problems solved they have promoted epidemic prevention and control earnestly. And by working with the residents, they build great synergy to win the final victory over the epidemic.
 
3. 统筹疫情防控与经济社会秩序恢复
 
        2020年2月12日,习近平主持召开中共中央政治局常委会会议,强调要统筹疫情防控与经济社会秩序恢复。会议指出,今年是全面建成小康社会和“十三五”规划收官之年,各级党委和政府要努力把新冠肺炎疫情影响降到最低,保持经济平稳运行和社会和谐稳定,努力实现党中央确定的各项目标任务;要加大宏观政策调节力度,针对疫情带来的影响,研究制定相应政策措施;要更好发挥积极的财政政策作用,加大资金投入,保障好各地疫情防控资金需要;要继续研究出台阶段性、有针对性的减税降费措施,缓解企业经营困难;要保持稳健的货币政策灵活适度,对防疫物资生产企业加大优惠利率信贷支持力度,对受疫情影响较大的地区、行业和企业完善差异化优惠金融服务;要以更大力度实施好就业优先政策,完善支持中小微企业的财税、金融、社保等政策;要在确保做好防疫工作的前提下,分类指导,有序推动央企、国企等各类企业复工复产;要多措并举做好高校毕业生等群体就业工作,确保就业大局稳定。
 
        2020年2月23日,习近平在统筹推进新冠肺炎疫情防控和经济社会发展工作部署会议的讲话中强调,各级党委和政府要坚定必胜信念,咬紧牙关,继续毫不放松抓紧抓实抓细各项防控工作;要变压力为动力、善于化危为机,有序恢复生产生活秩序,强化“六稳”举措,加大政策调节力度,把国家发展的巨大潜力和强大动能充分释放出来,努力实现今年经济社会发展目标任务。
 
        统筹推进疫情防控和经济社会发展工作,关键是抓好中央决策部署的贯彻落实。疫情严重或高风险地区继续集中精力抓好疫情防控工作,中风险地区依据防控形势有序复工复产,低风险地区把防控策略调整到外防输入上来,全面恢复生产生活秩序。
 
Coordinating Epidemic Prevention and Control and Restoration of Economic and Social Order
 
        While presiding over a meeting of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee on February 12, Xi Jinping called for coordinating epidemic prevention and control and restoration of economic and social order. As China will complete building a moderately prosperous society in all aspects and conclude its 13th Five-year Plan in 2020, Party committees and governments at all levels must strive to minimize the impacts of the COVID-19 epidemic, maintain smooth economic operation and social stability, and fulfill the goals and tasks set by the CPC Central Committee. They need to do the following work: 
 
        * strengthening macro policy regulation and formulating policies and measures to address epidemic impacts;

        * better leveraging a proactive fiscal policy and increasing budgetary input to ensure the funding for epidemic prevention and control in various localities; 

         * introducing phased and targeted measures of tax cuts and fee reductions to alleviate the operational difficulties of enterprises; 

        * maintaining a prudent and flexible monetary policy, providing more credit aid with preferential interest rates to enterprises producing anti-epidemic materials, and improving differentiated preferential financial services for the areas, industries and enterprises hard-hit by the epidemic; 

        * making greater efforts to implement the employment priority policy, and improving the fiscal, taxation, financial and social insurance policies that support small and medium-sized enterprises; 

        * giving classified guidance for the resumption of work and production of central and state-owned enterprises and other businesses in an orderly manner on the premise of ensuring all epidemic prevention work is done well; and 

        * taking multiple measures to promote the employment of college graduates and other groups, and ensure overall stability of employment.
 
        On February 23, at the meeting held to make overall arrangements in advancing prevention and control of the COVID-19 epidemic and getting the economy and society back to normal, Xi Jinping emphasized that Party committees and governments at all levels must have confidence in victory, bite the bullet, and continue to implement prevention and control measures without the slightest slackening. They need to turn pressure into power and turn adversity into opportunities, and restore production and livelihood of the people in an orderly manner. They should work to maintain stability in employment, financial operations, foreign trade, foreign investment, domestic investment, and expectations, strengthen policy regulation, fully release the great potential and strong momentum of the whole nation, and strive to achieve the goals and tasks set for this year’s economic and social development.
 
        To coordinate the endeavors, the key lies in implementing the decisions and deployments made by the CPC Central Committee. The regions hit hard by the epidemic or regions with high risk of infection should continue to concentrate on epidemic prevention and control; the medium-risk regions should resume work and production in an orderly manner; and the low-risk regions should shift their focus to guard against imported cases from outside, and fully restore local production and livelihood of the people.
 
4. 武汉保卫战
 
        2020年2月11日,习近平通过视频连线听取中央指导组、湖北指挥部汇报时作出部署,要求坚决打赢武汉保卫战、湖北保卫战。
 
        武汉胜则湖北胜,湖北胜则全国胜。一段时间内,疫情防控处于胶着对垒状态,湖北和武汉疫情形势仍然十分严峻。打赢武汉保卫战,首先要清醒认识武汉疫情的特殊性,武汉是疫情初发地,不仅早发多发,而且比市外省外更为长久、更为严重;其次要清醒认识武汉疫情的不确定性,与输入地相比,武汉感染者底数没有完全摸清,蔓延扩散的规模也没有较为精准的估计预测;再次要清醒认识武汉防控工作的薄弱点,疫情防控还存在确诊难、收治难、隔离难、保障难等薄弱环节;此外,舆情应对较为被动、网络舆情引导不到位、辟谣不及时,这些都影响了社会舆论环境。
 
The War to Defend Wuhan Against the Coronavirus
 
         On February 11, in a video call with the Central Guiding Team and Hubei’s Epidemic Prevention and Control Headquarter, Xi Jinping ordered to resolutely defend Wuhan and Hubei and win the war against the coronavirus.

        If Wuhan wins, Hubei wins. If Hubei wins, the whole country wins. For quiet a long time to come, epidemic prevention and control will remain a stalemate, and the epidemic situation in Wuhan and Hubei is very grim. To defeat the virus and protect Wuhan, people must first have a clear understanding of the particularity of the epidemic in the city. Wuhan is where the outbreak first occurred and the city has reported the most cases of infection, and the epidemic is predicted to last longer here and cause more serious damages to Wuhan than other places. Second, people need to have a clear understanding of the uncertainty of the epidemic in Wuhan, as the city has no actual number of its infected people, and the scale of spread is not predictable. Third, they need to have a clear understanding of the weakness in Wuhan’s epidemic prevention and control, as there are still difficulties in definite diagnosis, hospital admission, isolation and daily life support. Besides, there are problems such as passive response to public concerns, indolence in managing social media sentiment, and sluggishness in refuting rumors, all of which have affected the social opinion environment.
 
5. 湖北保卫战
 
        2020年2月11日,习近平通过视频连线听取中央指导组、湖北指挥部汇报时作出部署,要求坚决打赢武汉保卫战、湖北保卫战。
 
        疫情防控,湖北和武汉是重中之重;打赢疫情防控阻击战,湖北和武汉是决胜之地。武汉胜则湖北胜,湖北胜则全国胜。要打赢湖北保卫战,疫情防控这张大网中绝不允许存在任何一个盲点和漏洞。湖北省新冠肺炎疫情防控指挥部多次要求,落实全面排查,狠抓源头防控,充实收治力量,锚定“清零”目标。全省迅速作出响应,各地不断充实力量,下沉街道、社区、农村,全面排查患者人数、医院床位数等,尽最大努力加快疑似患者的检测、隔离以及确诊患者的收治、诊疗工作。
 
        稳住了湖北和武汉疫情,就稳住了全国大局。为了更好完成对口支援任务,各省份精细筹备、精准施策、强化保障,一批批医务人员和物资集结到一线,全力支持湖北各地市加强病人救治、疫情防控工作;数十家单位紧密配合,各地建设力量迅速汇聚,短时间内建好武汉火神山、雷神山医院;军队保证医疗物资和人员有效投送,抽组大量医护人员奔赴疫情防控最前线。力量向湖北集结,资源向湖北倾斜,凝聚起众志成城抗击疫情的强大力量。

The War to Defend Hubei Against the Coronavirus
 
        On February 11, in a video call with the Central Guiding Team and Hubei’s Epidemic Prevention and Control Headquarter, Xi Jinping ordered to resolutely defend Wuhan and Hubei and win the war against the coronavirus.

        Wuhan and Hubei are the top priorities for epidemic prevention and control, and they are the decisive places to win the war against the coronavirus. If Wuhan wins, Hubei wins. If Hubei wins, the whole country wins. To secure a victory, no blind spot or loophole shall be allowed in the large network of epidemic prevention and control. 

        Hubei’s Epidemic Prevention and Control Headquarters has reiterated the importance of conducting thorough screening to stop the epidemic at its source, and expanding the admission capacity to achieve the goal of “zero infection.” The whole province quickly responded, dispatching a large number of workers to the communities and villages to check the number of patients and hospital beds, and trying the utmost to accelerate detection and isolation of suspected cases and admission and treatment of confirmed cases.

        The situation of the whole country will become stabilized if the epidemic in Wuhan and Hubei is put under control. To better render paired-up assistance, various provinces have made meticulous preparations, worked out precise policies, sent medical workers and materials to support every single city of Hubei province. Thanks to close cooperation of dozens of units and combined efforts of construction forces from across the country, the two hospitals – Huoshenshan and Leishenshan – were built in a very short time. The military also ensured effective delivery of medical supplies and personnel and dispatched a large number of medical workers to the forefront. Together they formed a great force in support of Hubei fighting the epidemic.
 
三、具体措施
Effective Measures
 
1. 成立国务院联防联控工作机制科研攻关组
 
        人类同疫病较量最有力的武器就是科学技术,战胜大灾大疫离不开科学发展和技术创新。习近平在考察科研攻关工作时指出,防控新冠肺炎疫情斗争有两条战线,一条是疫情防控第一线,另一条就是科研和物资生产,两条战线要相互配合、并肩作战。
 
         2020年1月20日,按照中共中央国务院决策部署,科技部、国家卫生健康委、发展改革委、教育部、财政部、农业农村部、海关总署、国家林草局、中国科学院、国家药监局、国家中医药局、中央军委后勤保障部等部门和单位迅速响应,成立国务院联防联控工作机制科研攻关组(简称“科研攻关组”),并成立以钟南山院士为组长、14位专家组成的科研攻关专家组,组织动员全国优势科研力量开展攻关。
 
        科研攻关组围绕“可溯、可诊、可治、可防”的防控需求,主要开展四方面工作:一是确定科研主攻方向,即临床救治和药物、疫苗研发、检测技术和产品、病毒病原学和流行病学、动物模型构建等五大主攻方向;二是快速部署应急任务,启动科技攻关应急专项,组织跨学科、跨领域的科研团队,联合地方省市、动员社会和企业力量开展科技攻关和应急研发;三是与医疗救治组建立协同机制,加快阶段性研究成果在临床救治方面的快速应用;四是加强规范管理和服务,通过印发政策文件、出台指导意见等措施,确保科研攻关工作合法合规推进。
 
        截至2月底,在中央决策部署下,全国科技界团结协作、争分夺秒,先后启动了四批共20个应急攻关项目,各主攻方向均取得阶段性进展,为打赢疫情防控的人民战争、总体战、阻击战提供强大科技支撑。
 
The Scientific Research and Innovation Team Under the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council

        
Science and technology offers humanity the most powerful weapon to control disease, and scientific development and technological innovation are indispensable in curing diseases and fighting epidemics. 
When inspecting relevant scientific R&D programs, Xi Jinping pointed out that there are two battle lines in the war against the coronavirus: epidemic prevention and control, and scientific research and equipment production. He urged the workers on these two battle linesto cooperate and fight side by side.
 
        Following the decision and deployment made by the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, the scientific research and innovation team under the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council (“Scientific Research and Innovation Team” for short) was established on January 20, including members from the Ministry of Science and Technology, the NHC, the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, the General Administration of Customs, the National Forestry and Grassland Administration, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the National Medical Products Administration, the National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, the Logistics Support Department of the Central Military Commission and other government departments and agencies. China’s COVID-19 Expert Team, headed by Academician Zhong Nanshan and composed of 14 experts, was also established to organize and lead scientific research faculties across the country to tackle key problems.

        In line with the principle of “tracing the infection source, diagnosing the disease, curing the patients, and blocking the virus,” the Scientific Research and Innovation Team has mainly carried out work in four aspects: (1) to determine five major directions of scientific research – clinical treatment, drugs and vaccine research and development, detection technology and products, viral etiology and epidemiology, and animal model construction; (2) to deploy emergency tasks without delay, including launching emergency projects for tackling key scientific and technological problems, organizing cross-disciplinary and cross-domain research teams, carrying out scientific research and  emergency R&D by collaborating with provincial and municipal government departments and enterprises; (3) to establish a cooperation mechanism with the medical treatment team to accelerate the application of phased research results in clinical treatment; and (4) to enhance procedure-based management and services, and ensure that scientific research follows the law and relevant regulations.

        By the end of February, scientists and researchers across the country had worked together against the clock and started 20 emergency projects in four batches, and phased progress had been made in all major scientific research directions, providing strong support to the nation’s war on the epidemic.
 
2. 应收尽收、应治尽治

        控制源头、切断传播途径,是传染病防控的治本之策。新冠肺炎疫情发生后,习近平多次作出重要指示,要求坚决做到应收尽收,全力做好救治工作,切实提高收治率和治愈率、降低感染率和病亡率。各省市相继出台措施,围绕筛查、转运、收治和治疗四个环节全面加强收治工作。
 
        2020年1月26日,武汉市要求所有医院发热门诊24小时接诊,其中确诊和高度疑似新冠肺炎的患者,医院必须“应收尽收”,统一收治。2月17日,湖北省武汉市等疫情重点地区开展集中拉网式大排查,对“四类人员”进行清底摸排。各地根据防控救治需要,通过优化畅通收治转诊通道、改造扩容定点医院、增加医疗机构床位、优化诊疗方案等有效措施提高收治能力,取得积极效果。有关部门和机构开设线上求助通道,征集各地遇到就医困难的患者信息,助力应收尽收、应治尽治。
 
        坚决做到应收尽收、应治尽治,是彻底战胜疫情的关键之举,也是落实“集中患者、集中专家、集中资源、集中救治”要求的重要原则,为推动疫情防控形势加速向好提供了坚实保障。
 
Admitting All Suspected and Confirmed Cases for Treatment
 
        Controlling the source and cutting off the route of transmission are the fundamental measures for the prevention and control of infectious diseases. After the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic, Xi Jinping has given instructions on many occasions, demanding all-out efforts to admit all suspected and confirmed cases for treatment,  raise the hospital admission rate and the recovery rate, and lower the infection rate and the case fatality rate. Successively, various provinces and cities have adopted measures to comprehensively strengthen patients screening, transferring, hospital admission and treatment.
 
        On January 26, 2020, Wuhan demanded that fever clinics of all hospitals must operate round the clock to admit all confirmed and highly suspected cases, and put them together for treatment. On February 17, Wuhan and other regions in Hubei that were severely hit by the epidemic launched massive dragnet screening of potential virus carriers to get accurate information about the four groups of people (confirmed cases, suspected cases, febrile patients and close contacts). 
 
        Various localities have taken effective measures to raise the hospital admission and treatment capability, such as optimizing patient transfer channel, rebuilding and expanding designated hospitals, increasing beds in medical institutions, and improving diagnosis and treatment plans. Effective results have been accomplished. Relevant government departments and institutions have opened online channels to collect information from patients who have difficulties in seeking medical assistance, and help them get into hospitals for treatment as soon as possible.
Admitting all suspected and confirmed cases to hospital is key to thoroughly defeating the epidemic. It echoes the guiding principle of “treating the infected in dedicated facilities by senior medical professionals from all over the country and with all necessary resources,” and has provided a solid guarantee for creating positive effects in epidemic prevention and control.
 
3. 中西医并用
 
        在2020年1月25日召开的中共中央政治局常委会专题会议上,习近平强调,要不断完善诊疗方案,坚持中西医结合。
 
        中医和西医是在不同社会文化背景下发展起来的两种医学体系,在应对疾病方面各有所长:西医强于病毒鉴定、相关药物和疫苗研制、危重患者生命支持等,而中医则在调控机体、辩证施治、增强对疫病的抵抗力等方面拥有丰富独到的经验。“中西医并用”疗法曾在2003年抗击非典期间取得良好效果。
 
        在新冠肺炎疫情防控中,国家卫生健康委和国家中医药管理局于2月21日联合发布《关于在新冠肺炎等传染病防治工作中建立健全中西医协作机制的通知》,要求各地建立健全中西医协作机制,强化中西医联合会诊制度,促进中医药深度介入诊疗的全过程。国家中医药管理局及时派出专家前往武汉指导中医辨证治疗,并总结临床救治经验,将优化调整后的中医治疗方案纳入国家卫健委印发的诊疗方案。各地也积极组织中医药精锐力量驰援武汉。截至2月21日,国家中医药管理局和28个省(区、市)630多家中医医院共派出近3200名医务人员支援湖北,全国中医药参与救治的确诊病例已经超过6万例,占比达85%,中西医结合治疗效果明显。
 
        中西医优势互补、相互促进,共同维护和增进民众健康,这已经成为中国特色医药卫生和健康事业的重要特征和优势。
 
Combined Use of TCM and Western Medicine
 
        Xi Jinping proposed constant improvement of the diagnosis and treatment plans and combined use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine at the meeting of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee held on January 25, 2020.
 
        Traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine are two kinds of medical systems developed under different social and cultural backgrounds, and each has its own advantages in dealing with diseases. Western medicine is better in virus identification, development of relevant drugs and vaccines, and providing life support for critically ill patients. Traditional Chinese medicine has rich and unique experiences in regulating the human body, dialectical therapy, and enhancing resistance to epidemics and diseases. The practice of “combined use of TCM and Western medicine” had achieved good effects during China’s fight against SARS in 2003.
 
        The NHC and the National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine (NATCM) jointly issued a notice on February 21, requiring all localities to establish a cooperation mechanism of TCM and Western medicine, apply joint consultation by doctors practicing TCM and Western medicine, and promote in-depth intervention of TCM in the whole process of diagnosis and treatment. 
 
        The NATCM has dispatched a group of experts to Wuhan to guide TCM treatment based on syndrome differentiation. The experts also summed up the clinical experience and incorporated the optimized TCM treatment plan into the guidelines on diagnosis and treatment released by the NHC. Various localities have also organized elite TCM forces to assist Wuhan. 
 
        By February 21, the NATCM and more than 630 TCM hospitals in 28 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government) had sent nearly 3,200 medical staff to support Hubei. More than 60,000 or 85% of the confirmed cases had been treated by TCM nationwide, showing obvious therapeutic effects of combined use of TCM and Western medicine.
 
        By drawing strength from each other and putting them into combined use, TCM and Western medicine are able to jointly maintain public health. It is also one major feature and prominent strength of China’s medical and health system.
 
四、专有词汇
About COVID-19

1. 新型冠状病毒肺炎
 
        2019年12月以来,湖北省武汉市陆续发现多例不明原因肺炎病例,经检测结果显示冠状病毒核酸阳性,而后证实这是一种由新型动物源性病毒致发的疾病。2020年2月8日,国家卫生健康委将“新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎”暂命名为“新型冠状病毒肺炎”,简称“新冠肺炎”。2月11日,世界卫生组织发布疫情报告,将此次由新型冠状病毒引发的疾病正式命名为“COVID-19”。对于新冠肺炎,人群普遍缺乏免疫力,自我保护措施包括保持手部和呼吸道卫生、坚持安全饮食习惯、尽可能避免与任何表现出有呼吸道疾病症状的人密切接触等。

COVID-19
 
        In December 2019, several cases of pneumonia of unknown cause were found in Wuhan, Hubei province. Nucleic acid testing came back with positive results for the coronavirus, and it was later confirmed that the disease was caused by a new type of zoonotic virus. On February 8, 2020, the NHC temporarily named the disease “novel coronavirus pneumonia.” On February 11, the WHO released a situation report and officially named the disease caused by the novel coronavirus as “COVID-19.”

        There is no known pre-existing immunity in humans, and self-protective measures include maintaining hand and respiratory hygiene, adhering to safe eating habits, and avoiding close contact with anyone who shows symptoms of respiratory diseases as far as possible.
 
2.  “三个首次”
 
         2020年2月18日,国家卫生健康委发布报告称,2月17日全国单日新增确诊病例首次降至2000例以内,湖北省外单日新增确诊病例首次降至100例以内,全国单日新增死亡病例首次降至100例以内,实现了“三个首次”,疫情形势出现向好变化。
 
        随着全国各地防控措施逐步落实,疫情防控效果凸显。2月18日,全国新增治愈出院人数超过新增确诊人数,首次实现“出大于入”。同时,全国除湖北以外地区新增确诊病例数连续15日下降,较高点降幅达94%。据国家卫生健康委统计,2月24日,全国23个省份及新疆生产建设兵团实现零新增确诊病例。但“零增长”绝不意味着疫情“零风险”。在全国疫情拐点尚未到来的攻坚阶段,容不得一丝松懈,需要继续巩固防控成果,抓好重症病例的救治工作,最大程度防范轻症转重症,提高治愈率。
 
“For the First Time” in Three Aspects
 
        On February 18, the NHC released a report announcing “for the first time” in three aspects: On February 17, the number of newly confirmed cases across the country for the first time dropped to below 2,000 in a single day, the number of newly confirmed cases outside Hubei province for the first time dropped to below 100 in a single day, and the number of new deaths in the whole country for the first time dropped to below 100 in a single day. These indicated that the whole situation was getting better.
 
        On February 18, the number of newly cured and discharged patients across the country exceeded that of newly confirmed cases, marking a fourth “for the first time.” The number of newly confirmed cases in other areas except Hubei had kept decreasing for 15 days in a row, with a staggering 94% drop from the peak. 

        According to the NHC, there was none newly confirmed case in 23 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government) and the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps on February 24. Nevertheless, “zero increase” does not mean “zero risk.” In the critical stage when the national epidemic inflection point has not yet arrived, there is no room for a trace of slackness. The whole country need to consolidate the progress, ensure effective treatment of severe cases, exert every effort to prevent deterioration from mild to severe cases, and improve the recovery rate.
 
3.《中国—世界卫生组织新型冠状病毒肺炎联合考察报告》
 
        为了迅速就中国及国际社会如何进一步应对新冠肺炎疫情提供信息,并为尚未受疫情影响的国家和地区如何做好应对准备提出意见,来自8个国家和世卫组织的25名中外专家,在中国进行了为期9天的调研,形成《中国—世界卫生组织新型冠状病毒肺炎联合考察报告》。报告于2020年2月29日由中国国家卫生健康委正式发布。
 
        报告主要包括考察组、主要发现、评估和主要建议等四个方面内容。报告指出,新冠肺炎病毒是一种动物源性病毒,在无防护下通过飞沫和密切接触传播,人群普遍缺乏免疫力。报告高度评价中国在疫情防控方面所做的工作,充分肯定中国政府采取的历史上最勇敢、最灵活、最积极的防控措施,认为这些措施有效遏制了病原体的迅速蔓延,改变了疫情快速扩散流行的危险进程,为全球应对新冠肺炎提供了重要经验。报告建议,尚未受疫情影响的国家应做好随时启动最高级别应急响应机制的准备,加强对新冠肺炎的检测,采取更加严格的防控措施等。报告强调,国际社会应充分认识到各国之间真正的团结与合作对于解决新冠肺炎的共同威胁至关重要。
 
Report of the WHO-China Joint Mission on COVID-19
 
        To provide timely information on how China and the international community should further respond to the COVID-19 epidemic, and to offer proposals on how countries and regions that have not yet been affected by the epidemic should prepare, 25 Chinese and foreign experts from eight countries and the WHO conducted a nine-day mission in China and finished the Report of the WHO-China Joint Mission on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), which was officially released by the NHC on February 29, 2020.
 
        The report consists of four parts: the joint mission itself, major findings, assessment, and major recommendations. It points out that COVID-19 is a zoonotic virus that is transmitted via droplets and fomites during close unprotected contact between an infector and infectee, and there is no known pre-existing immunity in humans. 
 
        The report speaks highly of China’s efforts in epidemic prevention and control, fully affirms that China has rolled out perhaps the most ambitious, agile and aggressive disease containment effort in history. It holds that China’s bold approach has contained the rapid spread of the pathogen, changed the course of a rapidly escalating and deadly epidemic, and provided vital lessons for the global response to the COVID-19 epidemic. 
 
        The report recommends that countries that have not yet been affected to get prepared to immediately activate the highest level of emergency response mechanisms, immediately enhance surveillance for COVID-19, and enforce rigorous application of infection prevention and control measures. The report also stresses that the international community should recognize that true solidarity and collaboration is essential between nations to tackle the common threat that COVID-19 represents.
 
五、国际援助
International Aid
 
1. 普京:第一时间表示愿意援助中国
 
        新冠肺炎疫情发生后,俄罗斯总统普京第一时间向习近平发来慰问电,表示俄罗斯全力支持中方抗击疫情,愿提供必要的医疗物资援助,派遣防疫专家代表团赴华,开展联合研制疫苗和抗疫药物等合作。普京还在不同场合多次公开表示对中国的坚定支持。2月5日,俄罗斯派遣医疗防疫专家团抵达武汉,这是首个来华开展疫情防治合作的外国专家团。2月9日,俄罗斯援助的超23吨医疗物资由专机运抵武汉,其中有包括超过200万只口罩在内的大量医用防护用品。俄罗斯外交部发言人扎哈罗娃在新闻发布会上专门用中文声援中国抗击疫情:“在这个艰难的时刻,俄罗斯与中国同在,俄罗斯对中国人民表示诚挚支持,并祝愿中国人民取得最终胜利”。
 
        俄罗斯多次捐助医疗物资,派遣防疫专家代表团来华,各界民众自发录制视频为中国加油,都充分体现了中俄新时代全面战略协作伙伴关系的高水平和两国患难与共、守望相助的深厚情谊。中俄以最快的速度合作抵御共同威胁,显示出两国秉持人类命运共同体理念,深度参与全球公共卫生治理,携手为世界公共卫生事业贡献力量的大国担当。
 
Vladimir Putin: Expressing Willingness to Help China at the First Time
 
        After the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic, Russian President Vladimir Putin immediately sent a message of sympathy to Xi Jinping, saying that Russia fully supports China in fighting the epidemic, and is willing to provide necessary medical material assistance. Under his command, Russia sent a delegation of epidemic prevention experts to China to carry out cooperation in the joint development of vaccines and anti-epidemic drugs. Putin has also publicly expressed his firm support for China on many occasions. 
 
        On February 5, a Russian medical and epidemic prevention expert team arrived in Wuhan, which was the first foreign expert team to China to carry out epidemic prevention and control cooperation. On February 9, more than 23 tons of medical supplies from Russia arrived in Wuhan by a cargo aircraft, including more than 2 million facemasks and a large number of medical protective equipment. 
 
        At a news conference, Russian Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Maria Zakharova expressed, in Chinese language, her solidarity with China in fighting the epidemic. “Russia stands with China during this difficult time. We are also sending our sincere support to the people of China and wish them final victory in this fight,” she said.
Russia has repeatedly donated medical supplies, and sent delegations of epidemic prevention experts to China, and Russian people from all walks of life have spontaneously recorded videos to root for China. All these have fully reflected the high level of the China-Russia comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination in the new era as well as the profound friendship between the two countries who help each other at difficult times. 
 
        China and Russia cooperate at the fastest speed to resist common threats, which shows that the two countries uphold the concept of a global community of shared future, deeply participate in global public health governance, and have shouldered the responsibility of major countries by joining hands to contribute to the world public health cause.
 
2. 美国工商界:200万只口罩送到武汉

        当地时间2月13日,美中贸易全国委员会、美中关系全国委员会以及乔治·布什美中关系基金会组织了一批包括200万只口罩在内的急需医疗物资运往武汉,以帮助中国抗击新冠肺炎疫情。由于需求量大增,美国的口罩供应也十分紧俏,乔治·布什美中关系基金会通过其专门建立的美中新冠病毒行动关系网(US-China CAN)确定了来自墨西哥的稳定供货源。美中贸易全国委员会主席、美中关系全国委员会副主席埃文·格林伯格表示,在这个关键的时刻,美国工商界坚定地与中国人民站在一起。这次捐助只是众多美国企业支援中国抗击疫情的一个例子,美中贸易全国委员会会长克雷格·艾伦表示,这是我们为人类共同利益作出人道主义奉献的时候,我们尤其希望向勇敢的中国医务工作者提供帮助并致以敬意。
 
        疫情发生后,美中贸易委员会在其官网上推出了“抗击新冠病毒”的企业捐赠指引专页,为美国及在中国的会员企业通过捐款、支援医疗设备等方式支援中国抗击疫情提供便利。诚如美中关系全国委员会会长史蒂夫·欧伦斯所言,自1972年接待中国乒乓球队至今,美中关系全国委员会一直致力于加深两国人民之间的联系,在这次疫情中,我们很欣慰可以延续这一伟大传统,协助向中国人民提供急需的医疗物资。
 
American Business Circles: Sending 2 Million Facemasks to Wuhan
 
        On February 13 (local time), the US-China Business Council, the National Committee on US-China Relations, and the George H. W. Bush Foundation for US-China Relations gathered a batch of urgently needed medical supplies including 2 million facemasks and had them delivered to Wuhan to help China fight the COVID-19 epidemic. Facing the huge increase in demand and the tight supply of facemasks in the US, the Bush China Foundation was able to find a stable supply from Mexico through its specially established US-China Coronavirus Action Network. 
 
        Evan Greenberg, chair of the US-China Business Council and vice-chair of the National Committee on US-China Relations, said that at this critical moment, the US business community firmly stands side by side with the Chinese people. This donation is just one example of many US companies supporting China in the fight against the epidemic. Craig Allen, president of the US-China Business Council, said that this is a time to make humanitarian contributions to the common interests of mankind, and in particular, they would like to provide help and show respect to the brave Chinese medical workers.
 
        After the outbreak of the epidemic, the US-China Business Council set up a special column named “Coronavirus Information Center” on its website to facilitate member enterprises in the US and those in China to provide support by making donations and offering medical equipment. As Stephen A. Orlins, president of the National Committee on US-China Relations, has said, since hosting the Chinese Table Tennis Team in 1972, the National Committee has been committed to deepening ties between the people of the two countries, and it is pleased to be able to continue this great tradition and help provide much-needed medical supplies to the Chinese people.
 
3. 蒙古:3万只羊送前线
 
        2月27日,习近平主席在人民大会堂同蒙古国总统哈勒特马·巴特图勒嘎会谈。习近平指出,总统先生作为疫情发生后首位访华的外国元首,专程来中国表达慰问和支持,充分体现了总统先生和蒙方对中蒙关系的高度重视和对中国人民的深厚情谊,是中蒙两个邻国守望相助、同舟共济的生动诠释。会谈结束后,巴特图勒嘎向习近平递交了蒙方向中方赠送3万只羊的证书。
 
        中蒙是山水相连的友好邻邦,也是全面战略伙伴。新冠肺炎疫情发生后,蒙古国政府在第一时间向中国提供了约140万元人民币的资金支持,这是该国近年来最大的一笔对外现金援助。蒙古国首都乌兰巴托市政府,也提供了约40万元人民币的捐助。蒙方发起“永久邻邦、暖心支持”行动,号召全体公务员和社会各界人士为支持中方抗击疫情募捐,得到了蒙古国社会各界的积极响应,有许多人自愿捐出工资,希望帮助中国人民战胜困难。3月2日,蒙古国红十字会向中国捐赠2万只口罩,从二连口岸公路运送入境。
 
        草原上有句古老的谚语:灾荒之年能给你送肉吃的不一定是富人,但肯定是安达(朋友)!蒙方在此前已向中方提供捐款的基础上,再次向中方赠送3万只羊,这份蒙古国人民的心意令人备受感动。
 
Mongolia: 30,000 Sheep to China
 
        On February 27, President Xi Jinping held talks with Mongolian President Khaltmaagiin Battulga at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing. Xi pointed out that as the first head of state to visit China after the COVID-19 outbreak, the Mongolian President has made a special trip to China to express his sympathy and support, which fully reflects the great importance that the president himself and the Mongolian government attach to Sino-Mongolian relations as well as their profound friendship toward the Chinese people. Xi said it is a vivid interpretation of the two neighboring countries helping each other in difficulties and working together as responsible partners. After their talk, Battulga presented to Xi Jinping the certificate of Mongolia’s gift of 30,000 sheep.

        China and Mongolia are friendly neighbors linked by mountains and rivers, as well as comprehensive strategic partners. After the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic, the Mongolian government immediately donated about 1.4 million yuan to China, which was the country’s largest foreign aid in cash in recent years. The Municipal Government of Ulaanbaatar City, capital of Mongolia, also provided a donation of about 400,000 yuan. 
Mongolia launched a campaign named “permanent neighbor and warm support,” and called for all civil servants and people from all walks of life to raise money to support China in the fight against the epidemic. The campaign received a positive response in Mongolia and many people voluntarily donated their wages to help the Chinese people overcome difficulties. On March 2, the Mongolian Red Cross Society donated another 20,000 facemasks and sent them to China via the Erenhot port.

        As an old proverb on the prairie goes, “It is not necessarily the rich who give you meat in the year of famine, but it must be a friend!” In addition to previous donations, the Mongolian people have impressed the Chinese people with their good wishes with 30,000 sheep.
 
4. 泰国:免除因疫情滞留在泰的中国公民的罚款
 
        中泰两国山川相连、血缘相亲、文化相通,泰国是中国人出国旅游的首选目的地之一。新冠肺炎疫情发生后,泰国从王室、政府到社会各界纷纷向中国伸出援手,表现出中泰人民之间特殊的真挚情谊。泰国总理巴育还专门录制视频,为中国特别是武汉打气加油。在部分国家暂停与中国往来航班、限制外国游客入境的情况下,泰国尊重世卫组织的建议,采取了适度合理的应对措施。泰国移民局宣布,自2月9日起,对所有持旅游签证或旅游落地签证入境,因新冠肺炎疫情影响而滞留在泰的中国公民免除滞留罚款,具体手续在离境时直接办理。
 
        由于疫情发生之时正值泰国旅游旺季,泰国政府、媒体等高度关注疫情发展。泰国主流媒体MCOT 旗下的多个平台每天发布中国抗击疫情的相关消息,泰国历史最悠久的泰文报纸《沙炎叻日报》总编辑表示,泰国读者对中国抗击疫情感到钦佩。
 
        中泰一家亲,患难见真情。泰国作为中国的友好邻邦、全面战略合作伙伴,对中国抗击疫情给予了大力支持和真诚帮助,其中所传达的信息不只是出于经贸往来的礼貌和声援,还有进一步升华的传统友谊和更加密切的中泰人民交往。
 
Thailand: Waiving Fines for Chinese Citizens Stranded in Thailand Due to the Epidemic
 
        China and Thailand are geographically close, with a strong bond that links the two peoples and cultures, and Thailand is one of the preferred destinations for Chinese people to travel abroad. After the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic, Thailand, including the Royal Family, the government and all sectors of society, have extended a helping hand to China, showing the special sincere friendship between the Chinese and Thai people. Thai Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha specially recorded a video to root for China and especially Wuhan. 

         While some countries have suspended flights to and from China and restricted the entry of foreign tourists, Thailand has adopted the suggestion of the WHO and taken moderate and reasonable measures in response to the epidemic. The Thai Immigration Bureau announced that from February 9, all Chinese citizens holding tourist visas or tourist visas on arrival who are stranded in Thailand due to the COVID-19 epidemic will be exempted from the fine for detention, and the specific formalities will be handled directly when they leave the country.

        As the epidemic has occurred during the peak season in Thailand, the Thai government and media have been paying close attention to the development of the epidemic. Several platforms owned by Thailand’s mainstream media MCOT publish news about China’s fight against the epidemic every day, and the editor-in-chief of Siam Rath, the oldest Thai newspaper in the country, said that Thai readers admire China’s fight against the epidemic.
 
        A friend in need is a friend indeed. As a comprehensive strategic partner of China, Thailand has given strong support and sincere assistance to China in fighting the epidemic. The message is not just out of politeness and solidarity in economic and trade exchanges, but more from the further sublimation of traditional friendship and closer exchanges between the Chinese and Thai people.
 
5. 伊朗:第一个就疫情暴发向中国给予慰问的国家
 
        新冠肺炎疫情发生时,中国收到的第一份慰问来自伊朗——扎里夫外长是全球第一个公开声援中国的外长,并且他还多次用中文在社交媒体上发文表达对中国抗击疫情的支持。从政府到民间,伊朗各界纷纷表达对中国抗疫的支持:伊朗文旅部举办“为中国加油”万人签名活动;德黑兰自由塔举行支持中国灯光秀活动;许多伊朗官员和友好人士公开发声,表示坚定同中国人民站在一起,并向中国提供医疗物资援助;伊朗红新月会援助100万只口罩送往北京;一位在华伊朗咖啡师主动放弃乘包机回国的机会,与中国同事一起为抗疫一线医护人员免费制作、配送咖啡。

        进入2月下旬,伊朗新冠肺炎疫情严峻。中国驻伊大使馆和在伊中资企业向伊方紧急捐赠了25万只口罩和5000人份新冠病毒核酸检测试剂盒;中国红十字会派出志愿专家团队一行5人,携带部分中方援助的医疗物资支援伊朗。中方表示,将根据伊方需要,在疫情防控、医疗救治等方面开展合作,并继续提供力所能及的帮助。
正如那句古老的波斯谚语所言,“人心之间,有路相通”。中伊两国是全面战略伙伴,总是在彼此困难的时候相互支持帮助,坚定地站在一起。两国在共同抗击疫情过程中,以实际行动诠释了患难与共、同舟共济的内涵,展现了两国人民的深厚情谊。
 
Iran: The First Country to Offer Sympathy to China on the Outbreak of the Epidemic
 
        After the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic, the first sympathy that China received was from Iran. The country’s Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif was the first foreign minister in the world to publicly support China, and he repeatedly posted on social media to express, in Chinese language, his support for China’s fight against the epidemic. 
 
        From the government to the people, all walks of life in Iran have expressed their support for China. The Iranian Ministry of Culture and Tourism held a signature campaign to root for China. The Azadi Tower held a special lighting show. Many officials and friendly Iranians made public statements that they stand side by side with the Chinese people and offered medical materials. The Iranian Red Crescent Society donated 1 million facemasks to Beijing. An Iranian barista working in China voluntarily gave up the opportunity to return home by charter flight, and worked with his Chinese colleagues to make and dispatch free coffee to frontline medical workers.

        In late February, the epidemic situation of COVID-19 in Iran became serious. The Chinese Embassy in Iran and China-invested enterprises in the country urgently donated 250,000 masks and 5,000 sets of novel coronavirus nucleic acid testing kits. The Red Cross Society of China sent a team of five volunteer experts along with Chinese-assisted medical supplies to Iran. The Chinese side said that it will carry out collaborations in epidemic prevention and control, medical treatment and other areas as needed by the Irani side, and will continue to provide assistance within its capabilities.
 
        As an old Persian proverb goes, “There is a road between the hearts of people.” China and Iran are comprehensive strategic partners who always support and help each other in times of difficulties and stand firmly together. In the process of jointly fighting the epidemic, China and Iran have interpreted the connotation of responsible partners who work side by side to tide over the difficult period, and demonstrated the profound friendship between the people of the two countries.
 
6. 加拿大:接二连三的捐助
 
        新冠肺炎疫情发生后,加拿大对中国进行了接二连三的捐助,累计提供了近16吨的医用防护设备,包括衣物、口罩、护目镜和手套等。加拿大总理特鲁多公开表示,这是一个艰难且不确定的时期,作为国际社会成员,大家必须继续携手合作,加方愿意继续向中方提供相关援助。当地时间2月11日,加拿大卫生部长宣布,已通过世卫组织再次向中国提供200万加元(约合人民币1048万元)的援助。加政府官员还多次明确表示,加拿大政府和人民将在这场战斗中同中国人民坚定地站在一起,继续向中方提供一切必要的援助。中国抗疫期间,加方始终没有停止同中方的正常往来,也反对任何歧视性的作法。加拿大驻华大使鲍达民在加国会应询时表示,中国为阻击疫情采取了“令人难以置信”的措施,对一座超过1100万人口的城市进行“封城”,以保护我们所有人免受感染,这是非常有意义的举措。

        加拿大接二连三的援助及政府官员的一系列表态,体现了加方秉持的理性、冷静和科学态度,也反映出中国采取的实实在在的行动赢得了加方的认同与赞赏。
 
Canada: Making Repeated Donations to China
 
        After the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic, Canada made repeated donations to China, providing nearly 16 tons of medical protective equipment in total, including clothing, masks, goggles and gloves. Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau publicly said, “It is a difficult and uncertain time for them and for everyone around the world, but as an international community we do have to continue to work together and we’re there to help.” 

        On February 11 (local time), the Canadian Minister of Health announced that Canada had provided another 2 million Canadian dollars (around 10.48 million yuan) of assistance to China through the WHO. Government officials also made it clear on many occasions that the Canadian government and the Canadian people will stand firmly with the Chinese people in this battle and continue to provide all necessary assistance. 

        During China’s battle against the epidemic, Canada has never stopped its normal exchanges with China and opposes any discriminatory practices. In response to an inquiry from the Parliament, Canadian Ambassador to China Dominic Barton said that China has taken “incredible” measures to combat the epidemic by “locking down” a city of more than 11 million people to protect others from infection, which was a very meaningful move.

        The repeated Canadian aid and a series of statements made by government officials reflect Canada’s rational, calm, and scientific attitude, and also reflect that the concrete actions taken by China have won the recognition and appreciation of Canada.
 
六、人物案例
Brave Fighters
 
1. 乔冰和刘光耀:95后护士情侣共赴武汉抗疫
 
         乔冰和刘光耀均为河南省直第三人民医院急重症医学科的护士,是一对95后情侣。2020年1月26日,医院发出支援武汉征集令,二人推迟订婚,携手报名共赴武汉。
 
        2月2日,由122名医护人员组成的河南省第二批支援湖北应对疫情医疗队出发。出发前两人拥抱鼓劲,刘光耀对乔冰许下诺言:“回来后,我娶你”。

        到达武汉后,虽然两人在同一个病区,但是见面机会很少,有时是领饭时的几分钟,有时仅仅是交接班时在电梯口的擦肩而过。刘光耀说,乘坐大巴去医院的短短几十分钟路程,是他特别喜欢的一段时间,因为可以和乔冰在一起。
 
        2月9日,在本该订婚的这一天,刘光耀决定履行承诺。他写下一封告白书,用回形针做了一个临时戒指,单膝跪地向乔冰求婚:“今天本来应该是我们订婚的日子,但是我们在武汉。尽管没有鲜花,没有钻戒,但有你有我,有我对你的爱。在这个特殊的环境里,在这个特殊的日子里,可以嫁给我吗?”乔冰眼含热泪接受了刘光耀的求婚。
 
Qiao Bing and Liu Guangyao: a Young Couple of Nurses Heading for Wuhan Together
 
        Qiao Bing and Liu Guangyao are a young couple, both being nurses of the Third People’s Hospital of Henan Province. On January 26, 2020, after their hospital called for medical workers to support Wuhan, they decided to postpone their engagement ceremony and both signed up for the aid mission to Wuhan.

        Henan province’s second team comprising of 122 medical workers set off for Wuhan on February 2. The couple hugged to encourage each other before their departure. “I will marry you when we return from Wuhan,” Liu swore to Qiao.
 
        In Wuhan, they worked in the same ward but seldom saw each other. They might meet when getting meals, or at the elevator door when changing shifts. Liu said he enjoyed the short ride to the hospital very much, because that was when he could be with Qiao Bing for a while on the bus. 

        On February 9, their planned day of engagement, Liu decided to fulfill his promise. He wrote a letter, made a ring out of a clip, and kneeled down before the girl, “Today is supposed to be our engagement day, but we are now in Wuhan. We have no flower and no ring, but we have each other and my love. Will you marry me, under this special circumstance and on this special day?” Qiao nodded with tears in her eyes.
 
2. 彭银华:一封永远无法寄出的婚礼请柬
 
        彭银华,武汉市江夏区第一人民医院、协和江南医院呼吸与危重症医学科医生。在抗击疫情一线不幸感染新冠肺炎,因病情恶化,经抢救无效,于2020年2月20日在武汉市金银潭医院去世,年仅29岁。他办公桌的抽屉里,还留着没有来得及发出去的婚礼请柬。
 
        2020年1月21日,江夏区第一人民医院成立了第二批新冠肺炎隔离病房,当天130张床位全部收满。彭银华与爱人商量,推迟原定于2月1日举行的婚礼,主动请缨上一线。“出现疫情后,他连着上了两天两夜48小时的门诊,他想着科室人手不够,能够帮同事分担一点,因为除了科室主任之外,他是唯一的男医生。”彭银华的妻子回忆道。

        1月25日,因感染新冠肺炎,彭银华在江夏区第一人民医院接受治疗。1月30日因病情加重,他被紧急送往武汉市金银潭医院。2月20日离世时,他的爱人怀孕6个月。
 
Peng Yinhua: the Doctor Who Never Had the Chance to Send His Wedding Invitations
 
        Peng Yinhua was a doctor of respiration and critical care medicine at the First People’s Hospital of Jiangxia District in Wuhan. He was infected with COVID-19 while working on the front line. Despite all-out efforts to save him, Peng died on February 20, 2020 at the age of 29 after his condition got worse. Peng never had the chance to send his wedding invitations, which remained in his office drawer.
 
        On January 21, Peng’s hospital set up the second batch of isolation wards for COVID-19 patients, and all the 130 new beds were soon occupied on the very day. Peng and his wife agreed to postpone their wedding ceremony originally planned on February 1, as he had volunteered to work on the front line. “After the epidemic broke out, he worked for 48 hours continuously at the outpatient clinic. As his unit was short of hands and he was the only male doctor besides the unit’s chief, he offered to share the workload of his colleagues,” recalled his wife. 
 
        On January 25, Peng was hospitalized for COVID-19 infection. On January 30, he was transferred to Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital for emergency treatment as his condition worsened. He died on February 20, leaving behind his wife who was six month pregnant.
 
3. 夏思思:29岁女医生感染新冠肺炎殉职
 
        夏思思,武汉市协和江北医院消化内科最年轻的医生。她在抗疫一线不幸感染新冠肺炎,经救治无效,于2020年2月23日清晨殉职,年仅29岁。
 
        2020年1月14日晚23时许,夏思思值夜班时接诊了一位76岁的病人。她为这位病人做完相关检查后便下班回家。回家路上接到通知,该病人的检查结果显示为疑似新冠肺炎,且病情较重,她立刻返回医院参与救治。随后几天,夏思思担心老人病情,就主动要求留在病房。
 
        1月19日,夏思思突发高烧至39度,经检查高度疑似感染新冠肺炎,不得不在协和江北医院接受隔离治疗。“刚开始病情比较平稳,我们还商量,等她好了,我俩一起上一线。”夏思思的丈夫,武汉市普爱医院骨科医生吴磊说。然而,自2月7日起,夏思思病情突然加重,呼吸、心跳骤停,医院虽连夜组织抢救,但她却一直处于昏迷状态,直至2月23日清晨离世。
 
        夏思思接诊的那位新冠肺炎患者后来转到定点医院接受治疗,现已痊愈。
 
Xia Sisi: the 29-Year-Old Doctor Who Died of COVID-19
 
        Xia Sisi was the youngest gastroenterology physician at the Union Jiangbei Hospital of Wuhan. She became infected with COVID-19 while working at the hospital, and died on the morning of February 23, 2020, at the age of 29. 
 
        At 11:00 p.m. on January 14, Xia Sisi received a 76-year-old patient on her night shift. She knocked off after completing checks for the patient. On the way home, she was told that the checks showed the patient was a suspected COVDI-19 case and was in severe condition. She immediately returned to the hospital to join the treatment. In the following days, worrying about the senior patient’s condition, she volunteered to stay at the ward. 

        On January 19, Xia had a sudden fever with her temperature rising to 39 degrees Celsius. She was highly suspected of being infected with COVID-19 after checks, and had to be treated in isolation in her hospital. “At first, her situation was stable,” said Xia’s husband Wu Lei, an orthopedist at Wuhan Puai Hospital. “We agreed that we would join the front line after she recovered.” However, Xia’s situation deteriorated on February 7 as her breathing and heartbeat stopped suddenly. The hospital went all out to save her, but Xia remained in a coma until she died on the morning of February 23. 
   
        The COVID-19 patient Xia received was later transferred to a designated hospital for treatment and soon recovered.
 
4. 巴哈古丽:方舱医院的领舞者
 
        巴哈古丽·托勒恒,是新疆维吾尔自治区第二批支援湖北医疗队武汉市方舱医院(武汉客厅)C区副领队。新冠肺炎疫情发生以来,新疆向湖北派出三批医疗队,第二批医疗队共100名医护人员和2名行政人员,巴哈古丽是其中一位行政人员。按照要求,她主要负责后勤工作,无需进舱。
 
        2月12日,巴哈古丽得知一些患者心情不好,就主动进舱为患者跳新疆舞加油打气。她跳起了一段新疆哈萨克族民间舞蹈“黑走马”,引起患者们热情欢呼。这段视频被发布在国内社交平台上,当天即达到1.1亿阅读量和3.4万讨论量。此后,每当她走进方舱医院,患者们都会对这位虽已熟悉曼妙舞姿,却始终不知道长相的姑娘自发地欢呼“新疆的古丽来了!”巴哈古丽在接受采访时说,“我希望用舞蹈的方式调节一下他们的情绪,缓解一下他们的焦虑,让他们以乐观的心态面对治疗。”
 
Bahargul Toleheng: the Dancer in the Temporary Treatment Center
 
        Bahargul Toleheng went with the second medical team from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region to Hubei. She worked as deputy head of Division C of a temporary treatment center in the Wuhan Parlor. Since the outbreak of the epidemic, Xinjiang has sent three medical teams to Hubei, and the second team had 100 medical workers. As one of the two executive staff, she was responsible for logistics, which meant that she did not need to work inside the temporary treatment center.
 
        On February 12, as she learned that some patients were feeling down in the dumps, Bahargul volunteered to dance in the treatment center as a way to cheer them up. She performed a traditional Kazak dance and received a rousing ovation from the patients. After her dancing video was posted on the Chinese social media, it quickly garnered 110 million views and 34,000 discussions. 
 
         Afterward, whenever she went into the treatment center, the patients would spontaneously chant, “The lady from Xinjiang!” They had never seen her face as she wore a protective suit, but they knew well of her beautiful dance gestures. “I hope my dance can help regulate their emotions, calm their nerves, and keep them positive about the treatment,” she said in an interview.
 
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