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国际译联发布2019国际翻译日主题文章

  发布时间:2019-09-30
Translation and Indigenous Languages

        The United Nations (UN) has declared 2019 as the International Year of Indigenous Languages (IYIL) and has also designated every September 30th as International Translation Day (ITD). 
        The International Federation of Translators (commonly known as FIT) sees a strong connection between these two UN actions and has thus chosen "Translation and Indigenous Languages" as its theme for ITD 2019. This briefing explains that connection and encourages collaboration between the UN and FIT in achieving the objectives of IYIL. 
 
        The IYIL website identifies two main objectives for UNESCO, as the lead UN agency: 
        (1) "to benefit the people who speak [indigenous] languages"; and 
        (2) "for others to appreciate the important contribution [indigenous languages] make to our world's rich cultural diversity". 
 
 
        The FIT byline mentions three groups of professionals under the broad heading of Translation: translators proper, terminologists, and interpreters. Each of these groups makes an important contribution to these objectives:
 
        Interpreters benefit speakers of indigenous languages by providing access to health care, justice, and other social services when a minority indigenous community is embedded in a majority language environment and some speakers of the indigenous language have limited proficiency in the majority language. This access is explicitly mentioned in the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (DRIPS), which is central to the action plan for IYIL. 
 
        Translators allow speakers of majority languages to access the cultures of indigenous peoples whose languages they do not speak. No one speaks more than a tiny fraction of the more than two thousand indigenous languages spread across more than ninety countries, encoding an amazing variety of "unique systems of knowledge and understanding of the world". By seeing the world from the perspective of indigenous peoples, we might even become better at appreciating the value of alternative perspectives within our own primary language and culture. At a minimum, we will better see the importance of respecting the rights of indigenous peoples.
 
        Terminologists support the work of both translators and interpreters by linking the terms and concepts in domains of knowledge that are shared across languages.
 
        In summary, the language professionals represented by FIT are needed in very practical ways to achieve UNESCO's objectives regarding indigenous languages, working along with those who are supporting indigenous communities in their efforts to preserve their language as the vehicle for communication in everyday life. The UN and FIT can collaborate to make sure that interpreters are available to minority indigenous communities and to encourage more awareness of the richness of indigenous culture through translation into majority languages.
 
        Websites: IYIL (iyil2019.org); FIT (www.fit-ift.org); Indigenous Languages (www.wikitongues.org) 
        UN declarations: International Translation Day (Resolution 71/288); Year of Indigenous Languages (Resolution 71/188); Rights of Indigenous Peoples (DRIPS – Resolution 61/295)
 
参考译文
翻译和土著语言
 
        联合国此前宣布2019年为“国际土著语言年”(International Year of Indigenous Languages),并将每年的9月30日确定为国际翻译日。
 
        国际翻译家联盟(以下简称“国际译联”)认为联合国的以上两项举措密切相关,因此将2019年国际翻译日的主题定为“翻译和土著语言”。本文将说明二者的关系,并促进联合国和国际译联为实现“国际土著语言年”的相关目标开展合作。
 
        根据“国际土著语言年”活动官网,联合国教科文组织作为联合国系统的牵头机构,主要有以下两个目标:
        (1)“让土著语言使用者受益”;
        (2)“让其他人意识到本著语言为丰富世界文化多样性作出的重要贡献。国际译联的章程提到了翻译领域包含的三类专业人员:笔译人员、术语工作者和口译人员。他们都为实现上述目标作出了重要贡献。
 
        口译人员让土著语言使用者受益。在少数民族土著群体进入使用通用语言的环境时,一些土著语言使用者无法熟练使用通用语言,口译人员可以帮助他们获得医疗保健、司法和其他社会服务。《联合国土著人民权利宣言》中明确提及通过口译提供这些服务,该宣言也是“国际土著语言年”行动计划的核心内容。
 
        笔译人员使不懂土著语言的通用语使用者有机会了解土著文化。遍布90多个国家的两千多种土著语言形成了多种多样的“独特的知识体系和对世界的理解”,我们能使用的语言不过是其中一种或几种而已。从土著人民的视角看世界,我们或许能更好地理解自己的母语和文化中不同观点的价值,至少能更好地懂得尊重土著人民权利的重要性。
 
        术语工作者通过将不同语言所共有的知识领域中的术语和概念联系起来,为笔译人员和口译人员的工作提供支持。
 
        总之,我们需要国际译联所代表的语言专业人士,与支持土著群体将其语言作为日常交流工具的人合作,切实致力于实现联合国教科文组织有关土著语言的目标。联合国和国际译联可以通过合作,确保少数民族土著群体能够获得口译服务,并通过将土著语言译为通用语言,让越来越多的人了解丰富的土著文化。
 
 
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